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Kubernetes is an open-source container orchestration platform that automates the deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications. It is one of the most popular container orchestration platforms in the world, and it is used by organizations of all sizes to manage their containerized applications. Kubernetes provides a powerful set of features that enable developers to deploy and manage their applications with ease. In this cheat sheet, we will cover everything you need to know to get started with Kubernetes, including common deployment templates, recipes, common patterns, and best practices.
Before we dive into the details of Kubernetes, it is important to understand some of the key concepts that underpin the platform. These concepts include:
Nodes: Nodes are the physical or virtual machines that run your applications. Each node has a set of resources, including CPU, memory, and storage, that can be used to run containers.
Pods: Pods are the smallest deployable units in Kubernetes. A pod is a logical host for one or more containers, and it provides a shared network namespace and storage volumes for the containers it hosts.
Services: Services provide a stable IP address and DNS name for a set of pods. Services enable you to expose your application to the outside world and to other services within your cluster.
Deployments: Deployments are used to manage the rollout and scaling of your application. A deployment defines the desired state of your application, and Kubernetes ensures that the actual state matches the desired state.
ConfigMaps: ConfigMaps are used to store configuration data that can be consumed by your application. ConfigMaps enable you to separate configuration data from your application code, which makes it easier to manage and update your configuration data.
Secrets: Secrets are used to store sensitive data, such as passwords and API keys. Secrets are encrypted at rest and are only accessible to authorized users.
Volumes: Volumes are used to provide persistent storage for your application. Volumes enable your application to store data that persists across container restarts and node failures.
Common Deployment Templates
Kubernetes provides a number of deployment templates that you can use to deploy your applications. These templates include:
Deployment: The deployment template is used to manage the rollout and scaling of your application. It defines the desired state of your application and ensures that the actual state matches the desired state.
StatefulSet: The StatefulSet template is used to manage stateful applications, such as databases. It ensures that each pod in the StatefulSet has a unique identity and that the pods are started and stopped in a predictable order.
DaemonSet: The DaemonSet template is used to deploy a single pod on every node in your cluster. This is useful for running system-level services, such as log collectors and monitoring agents.
Job: The Job template is used to run batch jobs, such as data processing and backups. Jobs are run to completion, and Kubernetes ensures that the job is successfully completed before terminating the pod.
CronJob: The CronJob template is used to run jobs on a schedule. This is useful for running periodic tasks, such as backups and data processing.
Kubernetes provides a number of common patterns that you can use to design your applications. These patterns include:
Sidecar pattern: The sidecar pattern is used to add additional functionality to your application by deploying a second container in the same pod. The sidecar container can provide additional functionality, such as logging, monitoring, and security.
Ambassador pattern: The ambassador pattern is used to expose your application to the outside world by deploying a proxy container in the same pod. The proxy container handles incoming requests and forwards them to the appropriate container in the pod.
Adapter pattern: The adapter pattern is used to convert data from one format to another by deploying a container that performs the conversion. This is useful for integrating with external systems that use different data formats.
Fan-out pattern: The fan-out pattern is used to distribute workloads across multiple pods by deploying a controller that creates multiple replicas of your application. This is useful for scaling your application horizontally.
To ensure that your Kubernetes deployment is secure and reliable, it is important to follow best practices. These best practices include:
Use RBAC: Role-based access control (RBAC) enables you to control access to your Kubernetes resources. RBAC should be used to ensure that only authorized users have access to your resources.
Use namespaces: Namespaces enable you to partition your Kubernetes resources into logical groups. Namespaces should be used to ensure that different teams and applications do not interfere with each other.
Use liveness and readiness probes: Liveness and readiness probes enable Kubernetes to determine whether your application is healthy and ready to receive traffic. Probes should be used to ensure that your application is always available and responsive.
Use resource limits: Resource limits enable you to control the amount of CPU and memory that your application can use. Resource limits should be used to ensure that your application does not consume too many resources and cause other applications to fail.
Use container images from trusted sources: Container images should be obtained from trusted sources to ensure that they do not contain malicious code. Images should be scanned for vulnerabilities before they are deployed.
Kubernetes is a powerful container orchestration platform that enables you to deploy and manage your applications with ease. By following the concepts, templates, patterns, and best practices outlined in this cheat sheet, you can ensure that your Kubernetes deployment is secure, reliable, and scalable. Whether you are just getting started with Kubernetes or you are a seasoned Kubernetes user, this cheat sheet provides a valuable reference for all aspects of Kubernetes deployment.
Common Terms, Definitions and Jargon1. Kubernetes: An open-source container orchestration platform that automates the deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications.
2. Container: A lightweight, standalone executable package that contains everything needed to run an application, including code, libraries, and dependencies.
3. Pod: The smallest deployable unit in Kubernetes, consisting of one or more containers that share the same network namespace and storage volumes.
4. ReplicaSet: A Kubernetes object that ensures a specified number of replicas of a pod are running at all times.
5. Deployment: A Kubernetes object that manages the rollout and scaling of a set of replicasets.
6. Service: A Kubernetes object that provides a stable IP address and DNS name for a set of pods, allowing them to be accessed by other pods or external clients.
7. Ingress: A Kubernetes object that manages external access to a set of services, typically by routing traffic based on URL paths or hostnames.
8. Namespace: A way to partition a Kubernetes cluster into multiple virtual clusters, each with its own set of resources and access controls.
9. ConfigMap: A Kubernetes object that stores configuration data as key-value pairs, which can be mounted as files or environment variables in a pod.
10. Secret: A Kubernetes object that stores sensitive data, such as passwords or API keys, encrypted at rest and only accessible to authorized users.
11. Volume: A way to provide persistent storage to a pod, either by mounting a host directory or using a networked storage system.
12. StatefulSet: A Kubernetes object that manages the deployment and scaling of stateful applications, such as databases or message queues, that require stable network identities and persistent storage.
13. DaemonSet: A Kubernetes object that ensures a specified pod runs on every node in a cluster, typically used for system-level services such as logging or monitoring.
14. Job: A Kubernetes object that runs a batch job to completion, either once or on a recurring schedule.
15. CronJob: A Kubernetes object that runs a batch job on a recurring schedule, similar to a Unix cron job.
16. HorizontalPodAutoscaler: A Kubernetes object that automatically scales the number of replicas of a pod based on CPU or memory usage.
17. VerticalPodAutoscaler: A Kubernetes object that automatically adjusts the resource requests and limits of a pod based on its actual usage.
18. Node: A physical or virtual machine that runs Kubernetes worker processes, such as pods and containers.
19. Cluster: A set of nodes that run Kubernetes control plane and worker processes, managed as a single entity.
20. API server: The Kubernetes component that exposes the Kubernetes API and handles requests from clients, such as kubectl or the Kubernetes dashboard.
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